Dear M.Phil Leads University Fellows

Dear students,

Although, we were sincere to learn so many things in this semester but unfortunately due to volatile political situation, sit-ins, and terrorist incidents we could not materialize our learning goals. But, I wish that everyone from your class must read the text book we select for our semester thoroughly. For final exam please focus on these topics:

Laswell and modern propaganda theory

Effects of propaganda on politics, religion and economic life

The limited effect theory and particularly its major theory of selective exposure

Functionalism, its claim about the traditional functions of mass media in society

Wanted and unwanted effects of mass media in the society.

Wish you the best of luck.

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E.Media Assignment/Project

Critique #5: TV News Interview Program Watch at least two different episodes of one the following television news interview programs:

Two the point with,        Shahzaib Khanzada

On the front,                 Kamran Shahid

Off the Record  Kashif Abbasi

Tonight with Jasmine           Jasmine Manzoor

Capital Talk                              Hamid Meer

News Eye                        Mehr Bukhari

Then type out the following information:

  • Program profile: Name of TV program, history, Station, day, time
  • Part 1 (20%): Intended viewers, including their wants, interests and needs; and how well this program addresses these
  • Part 2 (20%): Type of guests. Specific names of interviewees or guests
  • Part 3 (20%): Topic(s) of discussion
  • Part 4 (20%): Style of interaction, including questioning and response between interviewer and guest; political leaning (if any)
  • Part 5 (10%): Your overall evaluation, with recommendations for improvement
  • Part 6 (10%): What you learned from this assignment
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BS Program: Pakistan Studies Students

Dear Student,

Only those emails have been replied and accepted which had Term paper, presentation slides and handout document. SO, if you have not received any reply for your email it means you have not submitted your terms paper. Plz re email your terms paper with two other documents i.e. presentation slides and handout.

For any discussion please remember that office hours and discussion time for BS students is on FRIDAY at 10:00 am. But you can email at any time if you need to discuss or ask something about term paper submission or any other  issue.


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Sample of MCQs based quiz.

Note: cutting and over writing will be graded as zero. Only select one option. Feedback about course could be given on the back of this page.

Select and appropriate option:

  1. Survey research is used to know
  2. Media content B) Group work                  C) Behavior         D) None of these
  3. Analytical survey is done to know the
  4. Reasons B) People            C) Describe situation      D) All of these
  5. Research is always
  6. Objective B) Systematic     C) Empirical                         D) All of these
  7. Empirical means
  8. Objective B) Real                  C) Observable                   D) None of these
  9. Something is true because it has always been true
  10. Tenacity B) Intuition         C) Authority                       D) None of these
  11. A tentative guess is known as research
  12. Question B) Hypothesis    C) Idea                                 D) None of these
  13. —– Research developed when research knows about the relationship
  14. Variables B) Hypothesis    C) Questions                      D)  None of these
  15. Appropriate data collection depends on
  16. Method B) Hypothesis & Questions          C) Resources                      D) None of these
  17. We usually do research when we
  18. Study                 B) Shopping                                        C) Decision making          D) All of these
  19. Variable relationship is measured in
  20. Research B) Community                                   C) Activity                          D) None of these
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BS: Pakistan Studies.

Dear students read following topics. The first one  is one of the very important topics in the Pakistan studies course known as objective resolution, our first constituent assembly passed this resolution. Secondly, you will read the  speech of Muhmmad Ali Jinah , which he made on 11th Aughust,  1947. You will analyse both these readings on  the basis of movement of Pakistan’s promises and claims e.g. Islam will be implemented in Pakistan, Economic and political system will be according to the principles of Islam. Moreover, you are supposed to comment and analyse that how  objective resolution  promises prosperity and peace in newly established country. you are also supposed to analyse the Muhammad Ali Jinah Speech that how much it was the reflection of Pakistan movement and two nation theory claims.   



Objectives Resolution  

Objectives Resolution is one of the most important documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It was passed by the first Constituent Assembly on 12th March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan. The Objectives Resolution is one of the most important and illuminating documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It laid down the objectives on which the future constitution of the country was to be based and it proved to be the foundational stone of the constitutional development in Pakistan. The most significant thing was that it contained the basic principles of both Islamic political system and Western Democracy. Its importance can be ascertained from the fact that it served as preamble for the constitution of 1956, 1962 and 1973 and ultimately became the part of the Constitution when the Eighth Amendment in the Constitution of 1973 was passed in 1985.

Objective Resolution was presented in the Constituent Assembly by Liaquat Ali Khan on March 7, 1949 and was debated for five days by the members from both the treasury and opposition benches. The resolution was ultimately passed on March 12. Following were the main features of the Objectives Resolution:

  1. Sovereignty of the entire Universe belongs to Allah alone
  2. Authority should be delegated to the State trough its people under the rules set by Allah
  3. Constitution of Pakistan should be framed by the Constituent Assembly
  4. State should exercise its powers through the chosen representatives
  5. Principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as inshore by Islam should be followed
  6. Muslims shall live their lives according the teaching of Quran and Sunnah
  7. Minorities can freely profess and practice their religion.
  8. There should be Federal form of government with the maximum autonomy for the Units
  9. Fundamental rights including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality should be given to all the citizens of the state.
  10. It would be the duty of the state to safeguard the interests of minorities, backward and depressed classes.
  11. Independence of judiciary should be guaranteed
  12. Integrity of the territory and sovereignty of the country was to be safeguarded
  13. The people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honored place amongst the nations of the world and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity.

Liaquat Ali Khan explained the context of the resolution in his speech delivered in the Constituent Assembly on March 7, 1949. He termed the passage of the Objectives Resolution as “the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance only to the achievement of independence.’. He said that we as Muslim believed that authority vested in Allah Almighty and it should be exercised in accordance with the standards laid down in Islam. He added that this preamble had made it clear that the authority would be exercised by the chosen persons; which is the essence of democracy and it eliminates the dangers of theocracy.  It emphasized on the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance, and social justice and it says that these should be part of future constitution.

But when it was debated in the session of the Constituent Assembly, it was opposed and criticized by minorities’ leaders. A non Muslim, Prem Hari proposed that the motion should be first circulated for evoking public opinion and should then be discussed in the house on April 30, 1949. He was supported by Sris Chandra Chattopadhyaya, who proposed some amendments in the resolution. To him, since the committee of Fundamental Rights had finalized their report, there was no need for this resolution to recommend these rights. He added that the Objectives Resolution was amalgamation of religion and politics; hence it would create ambiguities with relation to its application in constitutional framework. He wanted time to study and understand the Objectives Resolution.

While discussing rights of religious minorities, Chandra Mandal opposed the resolution by saying that ‘why ulemas are insisting on this principle of Islam whereas India has Pandits but they did not demand things like that. Individual do have religion but state had not. So we think it a great deviation in our beloved Pakistan.’ Kumar Datta opposed it by saying that ‘if this resolution came in life of Jinnah it would not have come in its present form. Let us not do anything which lead our generation to blind destiny.’ Other Hindu members also proposed some amendments in the resolution and recommended that some words like ‘…sacred trust”, “…within the limits prescribed by Him”, and “… as enunciated by Islam” should be omitted. Some new words should be inserted like “as prescribed by Islam and other religions”, and “National sovereignty belongs to the people of Pakistan”, etc.

Mian Muhammad Iftikharuddin was the only Muslim member in the house who opposed the resolution. To him the resolution was vague and many words used in it do not mean anything. He further suggested that such a resolution should not only be the product of Muslim League members sitting in the assembly alone. Rather it was supposed to be the voice of seventy million people of Pakistan.

On the other hand Objectives Resolution was strongly supported by Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Sardar Abdurrab Nishter, Noor Ahmad, Begam Shaista, Muhammad Hussain and others. In order to counter the allegations they argued that Islam governs not only our relations with God but also the activities of the believers in other spheres of life as Islam is complete code of life.

After a great debate finally the resolution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on March 12, 1949. Liaquat Ali Khan assured the minorities that they will get all the fundamental rights in Pakistan once the constitution based on the Objectives Resolution will be enforced. However, this resolution created a division on the communal lines as the Muslim members except for Mian Iftikharuddin voted in favor of it and the non Muslim opposed it. It created a suspicion in the mind of minorities against majority. Since, the Resolution has yet not been implemented in Pakistan in the true spirit, the doubts in the minds of the minorities still exists.





Mr. President (Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah): Ladies and Gentlemen, I cordially thank you, with the utmost sincerity, for the honour you have conferred upon me — the greatest honour that it is possible for this Sovereign Assembly to confer — by electing me as your first President. I also thank those leaders who have spoken in appreciation of my services and their personal references to me. I sincerely hope that with your support and your co-operation we shall make this Constituent Assembly an example to the world. The Constituent Assembly has got two main functions to perform. The first is the very onerous and responsible task of framing our future constitution of Pakistan and the second of functioning as a full and complete Sovereign body as the Federal Legislature of Pakistan. We have to do the best we can in adopting a provisional constitution for the Federal Legislature of Pakistan. You know really that not only we ourselves are wondering but, I think, the whole world is wondering at this unprecedented cyclonic revolution which has brought about the plan of creating and establishing two independent Sovereign Dominions in this sub-continent. As it is, it has been unprecedented; there is no parallel in the history of the world. This mighty sub-continent with all kinds of inhabitants has been brought under a plan which is titanic, unknown, unparalleled. And what is very important with regards to it is that we have achieved it peacefully and by means of a revolution of the greatest possible character.

Dealing with our first function in this Assembly, I cannot make any well-considered pronouncement at this moment, but I shall say a few things as they occur to me. The first and the foremost thing that I would like to emphasise is this — remember that you are now a Sovereign legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions. The first observation that I would like to make is this. You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a Government is to maintain law and order, so that the life, property and religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the State.

The second thing that occurs to me is this. One of the biggest curses from which India is suffering — I do not say that other countries are free from it, but, I think, our condition is much worse — is bribery and corruption. (Hear, hear.) That really is a poison. We must put that down with an iron hand and I hope that you will take adequate measures as soon as it is possible for this Assembly to do so.

Black-marketing is another curse. Well, I know that black-marketers are frequently caught and punished. According to our judicial notions sentences are passed, and sometimes fines only are imposed. Now you have to tackle this monster which today is a colossal crime against society, in our distressed conditions, when we constantly face shortage of food and or the essential commodities of life. A citizen who does black-marketing commits, I think, a greater crime than the biggest and most grievous of crimes. These black-marketers are really knowing, intelligent and ordinarily responsible people, and when they indulge in black-marketing, I think they ought to be very severely punished, because they undermine the entire system of control and regulation of food-stuffs and essential commodities, and cause wholesale starvation and want and even death.

The next thing that strikes me is this. Here again is a legacy which has been passed on to us. Along with many other things good and bad, has arrived this great evil -the evil of nepotism and jobbery. This evil must be crushed relentlessly. I want to make it quite clear that I shall never tolerate any kind of jobbery, nepotism or any influence directly or indirectly brought to bear upon me. Wherever I find that such a practice is in vogue, or is continuing anywhere, low or high, I shall certainly not countenance it.

I know there are people who do not quite agree with the division of Indian and the partition of the Punjab and Bengal. Much has been said against it, but now that it has been accepted, it is the duty of every one of us to loyally abide by it and honourably act according to the agreement which is now final and binding on all. But you must remember, as I have said, that this mighty revolution that has taken place is unprecedented. One can quite understand the feeling that exists between the two communities wherever one community is in majority and the other is in minority. But the question is whether it was possible or practicable to act otherwise than has been done. A division had to take place. On both sides, in Hindustan and Pakistan, there are sections of people who may not agree with it, who may not like it, but in my judgment there was no other solution and I am sure future history will record its verdict in favour of it. And what is more it will be proved by actual experience as we go on that that was the only solution of India’s constitutional problem. Any idea of a United India could never have worked and in my judgment it would have led us to terrific disaster. May be that view is correct; may be it is not; that remains to be seen. All the same, in this division it was impossible to avoid the questions of minorities being in one Dominion or the other. Now that was unavoidable. There is no other solution. Now what shall we do? Now, if we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor. If you will work in co-operation, forgetting the past, burying the hatchet, you are bound to succeed. If you change your past and work together in a spirit that every one of you, no matter to what community he belongs, no matter to what community he belongs, no matter what relations he had with you in the past, no matter what is his colour, caste or creed, is first, second and last a citizen of this State with equal rights, privileges and obligations there will be no end to the progress you will make.

I cannot emphasise it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities — the Hindu community and the Muslim community — because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vashnavas, Khatris, also Bengalese, Madrasis and so on — will vanish. Indeed if you ask me this has been the biggest hindrance in the way of India to attain its freedom and independence and but for this we would have been free peoples long long ago. No power can hold another nation, and specially a nation of 400 millions souls in subjection; no body could have conquered you, and even if it had happened, no body could have continued its hold on you for any length of time but for this. (Applause.) Therefore we must learn a lesson from this. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed — that has nothing to do with the business of the State (Hear, hear). As you know, history shows that in England conditions some time ago were much worse than those prevailing in India to-day. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days when there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. (Loud applause.) The people of England in course of time had to face the realities of the situation and had to discharge the responsibilities and burdens placed upon them by the government of their country and they went through that fire step by step. Today you might say with justice that Roman Catholics and Protestants do not exist: what exists now is that every man is a citizen, an equal citizen, of Great Britain and they are all members of the nation.

Now, I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State.

Well, gentlemen, I do not wish to take up any more of your time and thank you again for the honour you have done to me. I shall always be guided by the principles of justice and fair-play without any, as is put in the political language, prejudice or ill-will, in other words partiality or favouritism. My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest Nations of the world. (Loud applause)




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Course outline: Mass Communication Theory I

Week Topic Activity/Assignment/Readings
1 Introduction to the Course

Significance of Mass Media/Communication

Mass vs traditional Society & Mass Media

Activity 1: Reading-s will be given which will be followed by the discussion.
2 Functions of Mass Media

Communication Model , Theory and Paradigm

Activity 2: Students’ Evaluation of Pakistani Mass Media in the light of discussed function.
3 Mass Communication Theory (Classical concepts & Contemporary Challenges)

Types of Communication Theory

Postpositive Theory

Hermeneutic Theory

Activity 3:  Students will write a one page assignment on : “ Redefining mass communication theory and Pakistani society”
4 Types of Communication Theory (cont.)

Critical Theory

Normative Theory

Authoritarian Media Theory

Communist Media Theory

Libertarian Media Theory

Activity 4:  Discussion of merits and demerits of Post- positivist and Hermeneutic Theory.

Quiz 1: Class work, lectures and given readings will be included in the quiz

5 Types of Communication Theory (cont.)

Normative Theory

Social Responsibility Media Theory

Democratic Participant Media Theory

Developmental Media Theory

Activity 5: Students will work individually and prepare a chart of similarities and differences of Post- positivist and Hermeneutic and Critical theory.
6 Four Eras of Mass Communication Theory

Powerful Effects

Limited Effects

Activity 6:  Group work (written) will be done by the students on similarities and differences between normative theories.
7 Four Eras of Mass Communication Theory

Cultural Perspectives

Meaning Making Perspectives

Activity 7: Reading on Eras of Mass Communication Theory.
8 Evaluation of Mass Communication Theory Activity 8: students will select one normative theory and will assess according to the discussed criteria.

Presentation topics will be assigned.

Mid-Term Exams
9 Mid Term Exam
10 Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Cognitive Dissonance and New Media

Presentation Session I

Group discussion followed by class presentation on “Cognitive dissonance theory and individuals’ media exposure (political, social, religious dynamics)”

11 Thoery of Gate keeping and Mass Media

Gake keeping in interactive age

Presentation Session II
12 Two step flow of communication

TSC and Pakisitan societal sturcture

Two step flow of communication in internet age


Presentation Session III

Quiz 2: All topics discussed after midterm exams will be included.


13 Theory of Selective exposure, perception and retention

Pakistani audience and the SE Concepts

Presentation Session IV


14 Social learning theory

The role of media in social learning


Presentation Session VI

Group discussion followed by class presentation will be held on comparison of media and other socialization agents.

15 Theory of Spiral of silence

Mass Media , Spiral of Silence, public opinion  and  marginalized people

Presentation Session VII
16 Term paper (write-up of presentation will be submitted) Final paper discussion. Get-together and best student of the semester announcement. Based on academics, discipline, contribution in the class room/program and Institute.
Text Book:

Baran, J. S. & Davis, K. Dennis, (2006) Mass Communication Theory (4th ed). Thomson Wordsworth; United States.

For Recommended Books list: Please read BS Hons Communication Studies Prospectus





Course evaluation:

Midterm:                                                          35%

Final term:                                                       40 %

Assignments/Activities/Presentation/Quiz:       25 %

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Washington’s Corporate Media and the Imperial War on Korea by Danny Haiphong

There is no limit to the slanders spewed by U.S. corporate media – from so-called journalists to filmmakers to comedians – against North Korea, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. “The racist and inaccurate discourse around the DPRK helps justify the almost daily military operations the US backs in South Korea.” The 60-year long propaganda campaign is “part and parcel of the US imperialist agenda to militarize the Asia Pacific.”

The corporate media is the mouthpiece of US imperialism. More specifically, the Hollywood arm of the corporate media is tasked with promoting the US-Western imperialist way of life as profitable “entertainment.” Seth Rogan’s new film fits snugly into this mold. In The Interview, Rogan and James Franco play CIA recruits assigned with the job of assassinating the current leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), Kim Jong-un. This overtly cruel and monstrous plot line should come as no surprise to anyone following US imperialism’s decades long war against Korea.

The Korean War is labeled a ”forgotten war” by the US corporate media and political class. In reality, the US imperialist ruling class has done everything it can to erase the stain of the Korean War from popular memory. The US imperialist war on Korea formally began in 1950 after the US violated a temporary (three year) political agreement with the Soviet Union to peacefully divide Korea along the 38th parallel. Instead of abiding by the agreement, the US installed dictator Syngman Rhee in the South and armed it to the teeth at the tune of a half billion US dollars. Rhee used the funds to slaughter hundreds of thousands of guerrilla forces in the North. Despite this, Korean independence and socialist forces counter-attacked and liberated Seoul, the capital of South Korea. Washington, in a scramble to protect its interests in South East Asia from socialist construction and Chinese alliance, agreed to reserve 12 billion dollars for a land invasion in Korea.

During the invasion, the US dropped 420,000 bombs on the capital of the DPRK, Pyongyang. The bombing campaigns left large percentages of Northern Korea without homes or basic infrastructure. More than a million Koreans died. Despite heavy losses, the resistance of the Korean Peoples Army and the socialist Korean Workers Party forced the US into an armistice agreement in 1953. To this day, the US refuses to sign a peace treaty and maintains a militarized presence in the South, where 29,000 US ground troops are currently stationed. The US government also enforces economic sanctions on the DPRK. US sanctions exacerbated the DPRK’s food insecurity crisis in the early 90′s after the destabilization of the Soviet Union and socialist bloc cut off much of the nation’s access to international trade and finance.

US imperialism’s assault on Korea and the DPRK is not a “forgotten war”, but rather, a distorted one. The majority of people in the US obtain knowledge of the DPRK through the lens of the US imperialist corporate media. The Interview is just one of many Hollywood films that have dehumanized the DPRK’s leadership and socialist system in the interests of US empire. The 2004 film Team America: World Police portrayed Kim Jong-il as a literal cockroach whose insecurity fueled ambitions for world domination. In 2012 and 2013, the movies Red Dawn and Olympus Has Fallen each parroted Washington’s image of a militarist North Korea hell-bent on waging war on the US mainland.

To compliment these false and racist depictions of the DPRK, corporate journalism in the US repetitiously reports unverified instances of the DPRK repressing its own people and threatening the US with nuclear war. US imperial slander occurs so often that the fallacies only become more ridiculous. This recently took shape in the US media’s recent report of Kim Jong-un’s supposed mandate that the entire male population of the DPRK cut its hair in Un’s particular style. Of course, such slander never amounts to fact, but rather a politicized gossip partaken by the war-mongering imperialist ruling class and consumed by the rest of us.

Corporate media slander of the DPRK helps fulfill two key objectives for US imperialism. The racist and inaccurate discourse around the DPRK helps justify the almost daily military operations the US backs in South Korea. In contrast to Western media narrative, it is the US’s puppet state in South Korea that conducts regular military exercises, all of which directly or indirectly target the DPRK.  In addition to military destabilization, the US corporate media seeks to ideologically erase the heroic victories of Korean socialism. Despite being set ablaze by US bombs during the US invasion of 1950-53 and sanctioned from needed economic assets, the DPRK possesses a growing socialist economy. Housing, education, and healthcare are human rights provided to all. The food insecurity the DPRK experienced in the 90′s has been reduced mightily and the corporate media knows it, as evidenced by its recent avoidance of the issue as a talking point of DPRK demonization.

The US desperately needs to maintain hegemony in the region by keeping Korea divided and disallowing the DPRK to expand political influence in the region through national unity. China’s rise in the east has counterbalanced US imperial power with a more powerful economic system. The destabilization of the DPRK is part and parcel of the US imperialist agenda to militarize the Asia Pacific in an attempt to slow down inevitable crisis and collapse. Corporate media depictions of the DPRK need to be placed within the context of US imperial decline. One of the challenges for the left in this period is to fight the US’s racist narrative of the DPRK, not only for the sake of the Korean people but also for all people struggling to dig the final grave for US imperialism.


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